Tumors are composed of more than just tumor cells. The tumor microenvironment is made up of cancer cells, blood vessels, stromal cells, immune cells, and extracellular matrix.

We have focused on imaging many of these components using positron emission tomography, near infrared fluorescent optical imaging, and MR nanoparticle based imaging technologies. This has allowed us to improve our characterization of tumors in terms of which components are altered in specific subtypes of cancers, and develop paradigms in how best to monitor response to novel therapies that target or modulate distinct microenvironment components. We are currently translating these methods clinically.